Posted: Fri, 07 Mar 2014 13:43:33 -0600
As the good weather approaches, so too does the athletic season and a plethora of triathlon events begin to take place. Recent physiotherapy and sports rehabilitation news articles have focused on triathlon and overuse injuries and where on the triathlon course those injuries occur and iliotibial band (ITB) injuries are a common injury, but exactly what do they entail and how are they treated?
Posted: Mon, 03 Mar 2014 16:54:59 -0600
Athletes, trainers and sports massage therapists debate the importance of stretching on an on-going basis, but recent research suggests that if athletes can learn to overcome the short term pain of pushing their muscle length into further range, then they'll enjoy the benefit of increased flexibility. The research derives from focus on post-operative knee patients that showed that, under anaesthetic, their muscle range was far greater than when they were conscious, something suggested that it was not that their muscles were tight, but that their brain's pain response to stretching was what was causing them to stop.
Posted: Mon, 03 Mar 2014 14:47:17 -0600
By definition, no one plans to have an accident. But they do happen. And when they are serious, there may be medical care, surgery, hospital stays, or even in-patient rehab. In-patient rehab is what is sounds like, rehab that is done in hospital or a rehab facility. Typically this type of rehab is for patients who have suffered a severe injury or accident, serious illness or a traumatic event that has caused a stay in acute care or a long term hospital stay. The rehab is part of the recovery process and is designed to help patients relearn basic and daily functions and skills.
Posted: Fri, 28 Feb 2014 08:33:27 -0600
We need do be fit to cope-up with today's hectic life, and for that regular exercises are must. Here are some of the exercises that will be very useful for you and can be done without external help.
Posted: Tue, 25 Feb 2014 11:23:43 -0600
There is a lot to explore and draw meticulous conclusions on any joint dysfunctions and the structures to be repaired. It is highly unimaginable that any one single tissue will be at fault to create mechanical aberrations in a joint. But there are high possibilities of more than one tissue involvement to set a cascade of problems in all related structures of a joint, till the joint deforms and loses its function completely.
Posted: Fri, 21 Feb 2014 15:59:21 -0600
After sustaining an injury to muscle and soft tissue, regardless of the cause, it is imperative to address the severity to ensure further damage is not done nor scarring incurred. With minor strains and sprains or even contusions (bruising) often rest and hydrotherapy using ice initially and heat after swelling has gone down will do the trick, but for more intense injuries where tissue damage and scarring has taken place, an approach that helps is known as Myofascial Release Therapy.
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 10:40:26 -0600
Walking canes are often used to provide a person with additional balance and mobility support. This is particularly important if the person is weaker on one side of the body and needs more support in that area. Thankfully, there are plenty of fashionable options available.
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:37:44 -0600
Why does your body perspire when it is too hot? Why do you sweat when you do physical activities? Why do you sweat when you feel anxious or scared?
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:36:21 -0600
Do you feel a bump in body? Does this bump have yellowish fluid inside? Is this bump painful and does it look ugly?
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:24:37 -0600
An abscess is a condition that can be both embarrassing and painful. Therefore, it is important for you to know the causes of this condition in order for you to prevent it from happening and to learn how you can treat it in case you experience it. One of the causes of this condition is bacterial infection.
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:24:14 -0600
How do you know if your muscles are healthy? It is very important to be aware of your muscle health because it is essential for keeping a lot of physical activities such as walking, running and so on. Below are some indications to know whether or not your muscles are in a good condition.
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:12:14 -0600
Exercise is good for the body. However, many people do not like it because they feel so puffed out after doing some physical activities especially strenuous ones such as running. What is the reason for this?
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:11:56 -0600
Do you want to find out what your body temperature is? Do you want to know whether or not you have a fever? There are many ways on how you can find out your body temperature.
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:11:19 -0600
What is motor coordination? This is the coordination between the brain and the musculoskeletal system. You are able to walk straight without falling because of this.
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:10:55 -0600
Perspiration is very important for the body because it helps in eliminating toxins in the bloodstream. Many people wonder is all parts of the body sweat. To better understand this, you must first understand the different sweat glands.
Posted: Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:10:29 -0600
When you eat fatty foods, it is not always a guarantee that your body can burn all the fats you consume. This is especially true if you do not exercise or if you do not have enough physical activities to burn the calories. More often than not, the fats are just stored.
Posted: Fri, 14 Feb 2014 07:54:31 -0600
Even in this 21st Century, there is not much difference between people who are addicted to smoking/drinking from people who don't smoke/drink but are addicted to long-term medications for diseases that could have been avoided by healthy lifestyle & various preventive measures. It looks like we are in Anti-Hippocrates Era!!
Posted: Tue, 11 Feb 2014 08:59:36 -0600
A lot of people wonder which muscle in the body is the most used. The answer is very simple. It's the heart or the cardiac muscle.
Posted: Tue, 11 Feb 2014 08:49:49 -0600
Many people do not like injections. Injections can be viewed as a painful procedure. However, there are times when it is the only way to survive a disease.
Posted: Tue, 11 Feb 2014 08:49:11 -0600
What is referred pain? It is a condition where in one part of your body experiences pain or discomfort even without an immediate cause. One good example of this is shoulder pain when your shoulders are in a good condition.
Posted: Tue, 11 Feb 2014 07:08:25 -0600
There are times when the body temperature falls below the normal. When this happens, the body will do its best to keep itself warm. This is the reason why you shiver.
Posted: Mon, 10 Feb 2014 17:21:54 -0600
Allergies are common. Sometimes, you will have to bear with them no matter how irritating they are. But did you know that there are ways to overcome your allergies?
Posted: Mon, 10 Feb 2014 17:15:22 -0600
The brain is not always 100% sure of its surroundings and senses. Sometimes, it makes mistakes as well. One good example for this is referred pain.
Posted: Mon, 10 Feb 2014 17:09:51 -0600
Medications and supplements come in different forms. You can buy them in tablet, capsule, syrup or gel form. This article will talk about the tablet based drugs and how they are released into the body.
Posted: Fri, 07 Feb 2014 16:24:14 -0600
Between hoping your courses are the right fit to get you in, figuring out what to write in your admissions essay and that long period of waiting, applying to chiropractic school can be a challenging process. These tips will help ensure that you have everything you need for a successful application.
Posted: Wed, 05 Feb 2014 08:33:18 -0600
Your musculoskeletal system has 2 generic types or muscles: movers and stabilizers. Stabilizer muscles support and hold your body upright. Learn how to strengthen stabilizer muscles along with the movers to help decrease and prevent pain and dysfunction in the body.
Posted: Thu, 23 Jan 2014 10:01:49 -0600
The term fitness therapy is a fairly new concept within the rehabilitation and health & wellness industries. Throughout the past several years the most common mistake that people make is thinking that fitness therapy is in fact physical therapy simply because the two terms sound so similar. Even though these two professions share similar verbiage and both play a much needed role within the rehabilitation system in order to maximize efficiency of patient/client recovery, both services differ in philosophy and purpose.
Posted: Wed, 22 Jan 2014 12:32:31 -0600
The U.S. is going through a period of rapid change in terms of a shift in demographics. Much like other countries around the world, America's baby boomers are now senior citizens and the nation must deal with a healthcare crunch.
Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2014 17:06:39 -0600
Pinch your nose. Then take a spoonful of food into your mouth. Chew the food while your nose is still pinched.
Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2014 06:44:23 -0600
Have you ever wondered why people with amnesia can still play the music they love using the piano or the guitar? Have you ever wondered why you can do physical things without keeping much attention on your actions? Have you ever contemplated on how your body can react to things such as kicking a rolling ball and driving a car?
Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2014 06:44:10 -0600
You may have seen people with artificial arms and legs around you. These are the people who chose to have prosthetics in order keep their life as normal as possible. What are the reasons for a prosthetics and why do people use them?
Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2014 06:44:01 -0600
Food becomes more delicious when it smells delicious. A place becomes more comforting when it smells good. The atmosphere is ruined when there is a foul smell.
Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2014 06:43:54 -0600
The mouth is one of the prominent parts of the face. It is where you eat and drink. Sometimes, you can also breathe using it.
Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2014 06:42:38 -0600
Do you know what stimulants are? These are substances that can stimulate the body and increase its functions. Take coffee as an example.
Posted: Fri, 17 Jan 2014 06:42:24 -0600
When you exercise a lot, your muscles become sore and painful. They experience spasms and other conditions that cause discomfort. One of the ways on how to deal with these conditions is to use muscle relaxants.
Posted: Thu, 16 Jan 2014 15:44:54 -0600
Everyone has difficult experiences, both at work and at home. By using counselling skills you can enable other people to deal with their concerns, making it easier for them to work through their feelings. An essential counselling skill is to give time and space for people to handle their experiences. These experiences may usually leave people with a sense of loss - not only bereavement, but other experiences too, like parents' break up, exam failure or broken relationships. By giving time to other people you can help them to change a painful experience into a painful memory. Everyday counselling is what almost all of us do from time to time for friends and colleagues. Friendship certainly helps, but acquiring specific basic counselling skills and also knowing the pitfalls to avoid will most certainly assist the person needing support.
Posted: Wed, 15 Jan 2014 09:21:01 -0600
Did you know that female athletes are four to six times more likely to tear their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) than male athletes participating in the same sport? As a former softball player, I have seen many of my teammates tear their ACL. One in particular was running to first base and stutter stepped because her stride was off, meaning had she kept running the way she was she would have stepped over first base so she had to stutter step to fix her stride to land on first. This small stutter step, which many of us had done in the past, caused her ACL to tear. There was no contact on the knee just the stutter step. When we think about injuries we usually think about the injury occurring from some sort of contact whether it is being hit by another player or falling to the ground. This isn't always the case; these injuries can happen at any time such as in the case of my friend and her stutter step. So, why does this happen?
Posted: Tue, 14 Jan 2014 08:19:07 -0600
As an osteopath I get asked this question several times a week by my patients. I always say that the answer is not simple and succinct as it depends a lot on the individual therapist and their preferred treatment approach. This article helps explain.
Posted: Mon, 13 Jan 2014 06:40:09 -0600
In case you are experiencing a severe neck or back pain then you need to visit a chiropractor right away. Such an individual can really offer you some great help and so you don't have to fear about anything. Most of the people feel that visiting a chiropractor might prove to be a terrifying experience but it is not at all true.
Posted: Fri, 10 Jan 2014 08:09:50 -0600
Indigestion is a condition that many people suffer from. It is very common therefore you should not really be too worried if you have it. However, if the episodes appear frequently, you need to start consulting a doctor to confirm your condition.
Posted: Fri, 10 Jan 2014 06:58:42 -0600
Physiotherapy is a health care intervention to help the injured, the ill, and the disabled persons. This article lists basic facts concerning this treatment modality, including the can-be-treated problems, the interventions made, and ways on how to access physiotherapy.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:32:12 -0600
Have you ever heard of musculoskeletal alignment? It is the alignment that determines the symmetry between the left and right side of the body. Although many wish to believe that the body is symmetric, at least in physical attributes, this is not entirely true. Having one arm shorter than the other is a normal condition.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:31:09 -0600
Indigestion is also known as upset stomach. It brings pain and discomfort to people who are experiencing it. There are many causes however the main cause is the acid that leaks to the oesophagus or the throat.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:27:13 -0600
Balance is important in performing daily tasks. Imagine you do not have a sense of balance. You will always trip when you walk.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:23:40 -0600
Indigestion is a condition wherein acids in the stomach spill and reach the oesophageal area. It is a very painful condition that should be relieved immediately. There are many causes of indigestion such as medical conditions and food allergies.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:23:24 -0600
Blood runs all throughout your body. If you try to cut yourself in any part, you will definitely see blood gushing out. This is because the blood vessels are located in every area to ensure that every cell, tissue and organ is getting the nutrients they need from the blood.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:22:45 -0600
Muscles allow the body to move. They give strength and allow you to do the activities that you love - both mental and physical. However, muscles are not divine.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:21:22 -0600
Bone diseases can happen to anyone. Some people are more likely to have them due to their genes. If you want to know the different genetic bone diseases, continue reading below.
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:21:02 -0600
Some people are overweight while some are underweight. Some have a normal body mass index while others are obese. How can your weight affect the functions of your body?
Posted: Thu, 09 Jan 2014 08:17:45 -0600
Do you sometimes feel that your heartbeat is too fast or sometimes too slow? Do you sometimes hear the beating of your heart because it is too strong and fast? What makes your heart palpate?
Posted: Wed, 08 Jan 2014 13:24:58 -0600
Should you ice a sprained ankle? The answer will shock you... not only is ice NOT helpful, it actually stops the healing process for a sprained ankle. Here is what you need to know...
Posted: Wed, 08 Jan 2014 13:24:12 -0600
Most of us don't have 1-3 months to lay around wait for a sprained ankle to heal itself. Contrary to what you may know, R.I.C.E. is a slow and tedious course of action for an ankle sprain and it doesn't address strength, stability, or range of motion in the ankle which leaves it at a high risk for re-injury.
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:45:09 -0600
When your bones stop growing, you also stop growing in terms of height. The question is when does this happen? When do you and your bones stop growing?
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:44:11 -0600
Blood clotting is very important. Without it, your body will be depleted of blood when you get open wounds. You will be subject to infection because the wounds are exposed to bacteria and viruses.
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:42:49 -0600
A lot of people want to be tall. Being tall is an advantage in many fields such as sports and business. However, is it possible to stretch your bones to become taller?
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:42:02 -0600
It is very important to know your blood type especially when you encounter accidents that induce blood loss. You should understand that not all blood types can be mixed. In fact, if you mix one type of blood to another that is incompatible, this can be very dangerous to your health and may cause immediate death.
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:41:21 -0600
Coughing can be very annoying. It will not only produce sounds that may disturb the people around you but it can also be very painful such as in the case of dry cough. But what is the purpose of coughing?
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:39:24 -0600
Blood flow in the body is very important. If your blood does not flow, the nutrients will not be replenished and the organs will die. If the blood does not circulate, the toxins will not be removed from the body because the blood will not be filtered by the kidneys and the spleen.
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:38:38 -0600
Have you ever heard the word duodenum before? It is not a difficult scientific word. It is just a term that refers to the connecting part of the stomach to the small intestine.
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:38:06 -0600
What is the thyroid? The thyroid is the gland located in the neck area. It can be located easily because it is below the voice box.
Posted: Mon, 06 Jan 2014 11:34:50 -0600
Every part of your body is important to be healthy. Whether it is an organ or a gland, it is essential to understand how every part, big or little, affects your overall well-being. This article will talk about the pituitary gland and how it keeps you healthy.
Posted: Thu, 02 Jan 2014 09:36:07 -0600
Sports therapy is very useful for athletes undergoing various stresses with their sports. This article tells you on the various techniques used in this therapy, as well as the benefits you will gain with receiving sports therapy.
Posted: Thu, 26 Dec 2013 08:42:01 -0600
Your posture (how you sit or stand) affects you in lots of ways. It's not just parents and teachers being awkward when they tell you to sit up straight. It's actually for your well-being as a person.
Posted: Wed, 18 Dec 2013 08:45:39 -0600
Do you know what body type you have? In many cases, it is very important to know what it is in order for you to effectively choose clothes and fashion items that will go well with the shape of your body. Below are some of the most common body types that people have.
Posted: Wed, 18 Dec 2013 07:20:58 -0600
Some organs are popular while others are almost never mentioned. Why is this so? It is because people usually know only the organs that are vital to the body.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 07:43:23 -0600
Osteomalacia is a condition wherein the bones become weak and soft. This condition often happens when the body has insufficient amounts of vitamin D. Osteomalacia is often referred to as rickets especially when the condition becomes evident in children.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:46:46 -0600
The neck is very important for the body. It keeps your head in place and supports it. Because of it, your head does not fall forward or backward.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:46:12 -0600
What is the temporomandibular joint (TMJ)? This is the joint that can be found on the lower part of your jaw or your mandible. This is the main joint responsible for talking, chewing and swallowing.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:45:28 -0600
Many people believe that your posture is related to your health. This means that if you have a poor posture, you are likely to develop poor health as well. What are the health problems that can be caused by poor posture?
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:45:13 -0600
Have you ever heard of bursitis? If not, you first need to know what a bursa is. The bursa is a sac which can be found in your bones, muscles and skin.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:44:34 -0600
The spine is naturally curved. It does not assume a straight line for important reasons. The normal curve of the spine makes sure that your posture and balance is good.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:42:52 -0600
Some people get confused when asked about the different between arthritis and osteoarthritis. How can you tell these two apart? This article will help you understand difference between the two conditions and how you can deal with them.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:42:36 -0600
What is scurvy? It is a type of illness that usually occurs when the body excessively lacks in vitamin C. some of the most common symptoms of this disease are exhaustion, bleeding of the gums and swelling of different body parts.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:42:11 -0600
Do you often experience discomfort in your nose area? Do you often have runny nose? If you do, you might have sinusitis.
Posted: Thu, 12 Dec 2013 06:41:55 -0600
Lots of things are celebrated in the world. People celebrate events to commemorate them and to make them known to people. The same is true for osteopathy.
Posted: Mon, 09 Dec 2013 08:10:22 -0600
Becoming a good or great physical therapist starts by making sure you have a good sound grasp of knowledge regarding aspects of how to improve a patients outcome through physical rehabilitation. This is usually addressed before you get out of physical therapy school to be sure you can pass the state boards. However, there are personal traits that are not taught in school that will determine your effectiveness if you decide to go out on your own in the world of home health physical therapy.
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 07:24:04 -0600
Why is your blood important? Why do you need it? Why do you have to make sure it flows effectively throughout your body?
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 06:46:27 -0600
Osteogenesis imperfecta is also known to others as brittle bone disease. It was named as such because the condition is characterized by fragile bones. People who have this condition have bodies which are incapable of or problems with producing connective tissues.
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 06:45:01 -0600
Do you remember the days when your parents would ask you to drink your milk every day? You should know that they were doing it to help you build strong bones. Bones are essential for movement and protection.
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 06:44:41 -0600
Your bones are important to your body. You can move because of them. Your organs are protected because the bones surround them.
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 06:42:52 -0600
Do you sometimes feel a tingling sensation in some parts of your body? Do you sometimes experience numbing? Have you ever asked yourself why you are experiencing such things?
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 06:42:32 -0600
When you exercise, you sometimes feel a painful sensation in your muscles. This painful sensation is often referred to as a cramp. Cramps cause severe and sudden pain in the affected area and they usually happen during exercise or vigorous activities such as running or sprinting.
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 06:42:12 -0600
The body has its own natural way of healing itself. It detoxifies naturally when toxins start to build up. The bones and muscles heal themselves when they get injured.
Posted: Thu, 05 Dec 2013 06:34:35 -0600
Males and females differ in many ways. The appearance is different as well as the personality. However, one major difference is the built.
Posted: Wed, 04 Dec 2013 11:49:28 -0600
Tennis Elbow is perhaps one of the most common, and most frustrating, debilitating overuse conditions. It can often take over a year to rehab fully, especially if it is not treated and cared for properly. This article recommends research-supported treatment options to reduce recovery time.
Posted: Tue, 03 Dec 2013 13:14:55 -0600
If you are suffering from back pain, headaches or other musculo-skeletal problems then you may be thinking about seeking the help of an osteopath. If you are wondering what exactly an osteopath does and how osteopathy works then read on. In simple terms osteopathy is a way of detecting, treating and preventing musculo-skeletal health problems by mobilising, stretching and massaging the patients' muscles and joints.
Posted: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 08:28:09 -0600
As you're crossing the threshold of being adolescent, you are facing a chaotic stage of your life. Adolescence is a stage where diverse changes occur in your mental and physical being. These changes can be devastating for you but you only need to understand these changes in order to adapt to it.
Posted: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 08:23:45 -0600
Osteoporosis is a type of bone disease where there is an indication of reduced BMD or bone mineral density which leads to an increasing number of risks such as fractures. People with osteoporosis have weak bones which can lead to bone breakage which usually happens in the wrists, hips and spine. Osteoporosis is classified into 3 types which are primary type 1, primary type 2 and secondary type.
Posted: Mon, 02 Dec 2013 08:20:54 -0600
Good balance is very important. You need it when you ride a bike or when you climb the stairs. You need to have good balance when you walk or when you run.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 09:32:13 -0600
Each of your four fingers has three bones and your thumb has two bones. The bones of your fingers are called phalanges. Each of your thumb has 2 phalanges - a proximal phalanx articulates with the first metacarpal and a distal phalanx which forms the tip of the thumb.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:54:55 -0600
It's important to understand what a muscle is and that there are the three different types of it. But do you know its color? The answer is red and white.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:53:59 -0600
Why is it called circulatory system? The circulatory system is a never ending process that follows a unique sequence and only takes about a minute or two for this process to complete. The circulatory system is an organ system which allows blood and lymph circulation to flow through the entire body and carry the nutrients such as amino acids and electrolytes, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:52:41 -0600
Roses are red. Violets are blue. And so are arteries and veins, respectively they are red and blue.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:50:22 -0600
Blood pumped out of the heart is normally of high pressure in order for it to reach the farthest regions of our body where the nutrients they carry can be distributed. Because of this, the vessel which receives and carries the pressurized blood away from the heart and throughout the body need to withstand the intense pressure brought about by this maneuver. Hence, arteries are thicker than veins.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:48:53 -0600
Ever wonder how does your elbow work? Your elbow is the hinge that connects the longer bone on your upper arm called the humerus, and the two bones of your lower arm called the radius and the ulna. Without your elbows it is impossible to bend your arms.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:45:36 -0600
Estrogen and testosterone plays a number of roles in your body. Estrogens function is mostly for women but nowadays it is also useful for men. This hormonal substance is most vital to female reproductive system.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:44:19 -0600
You of course know that generally testosterone is pertaining to men and estrogen pertains to women. However, this does not mean that men don't have estrogen and women don't have testosterone. Certainly, both genders have estrogen and testosterone except that they only have a different level of testosterone needed by their body.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:42:36 -0600
The different parts of your body are connected by tissues. Your bones are connected to each other by ligaments. Your bones are connected to your muscles by tendons.
Posted: Mon, 25 Nov 2013 07:08:59 -0600
Aside from the bones or skeleton that supports and maintains the balance of your neck, there are also sets of muscles attached to it to make your neck leaner and more beautiful giving you an excellent posture. What are these? The muscles that make up the support system of the neck are categorized into two subsets, namely: anterior and posterior muscles.